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SCIENCE:塞卡病毒会杀死发育中的脑细胞

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发表于 2016-3-7 11:06:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Zika virus kills developing brain cellsAs fear of the Zika virus spreads nearly as quickly as the pathogen itself, two new laboratory studies offer the first solid evidence for how it could cause brain defects in babies: The virus appears to preferentially kill developing brain cells. The observation bolsters the growing case for a connection between the virus, which is spreading rapidly across Latin America, and an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly, a birth defect in which the brain fails to grow properly. The new work, done independently by two groups, shows that the virus readily infects neural stem cells—the precursors of neurons and other brain cells—whether they are grown on cell culture plates or coaxed to form 3D minibrains called cerebral organoids.
在塞卡病毒恐惧蔓延的速度正如病原体本身一样快,两个新的实验室研究对病毒如何能引起婴儿大脑缺陷提供了第一个有力的证据:病毒似乎优先杀死脑细胞的发育。观察了病毒之间的连接不断增长的情况下,这是迅速传播到拉丁美洲的美国,并在增加例数小头畸形,出生缺陷,大脑不能正常生长。新的工作,通过两组独立完成,表明该病毒容易感染神经干细胞的神经元和其他脑细胞,无论是在细胞培养板上生长或诱导形成三维minibrains称为脑细胞前体。
The work “is going to be very important,” says Madeline Lancaster, a developmental biologist who studies human brain development at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, U.K. The results “are quite consistent with what you’re seeing in the babies with microcephaly.”
“这个工作将是非常重要的,”Madeline Lancaster,剑桥发育生物学家,在英国分子生物学医学研究委员会实验室研究人类大脑发育,”结果与你所看到的婴儿小头畸形是相当一致的。”
Zika virus, named after a forest in Uganda where it was first isolated decades ago, usually causes only mild symptoms in people, including fever and rash. But after the virus started spreading across northeastern Brazil last year, doctors there noticed a striking increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly. Many of the mothers reported having symptoms consistent with Zika infection during their pregnancies. But it has been difficult to prove a link between the virus and the birth defects because blood tests for Zika virus are only accurate for about a week after infection.
塞卡病毒,以乌干达的几十年前第一个独立出来的森林命名,通常只会引起轻微的症状,包括发烧和皮疹。但在病毒开始传播到巴西东北部的最后一年,那里的医生注意到出生的婴儿人数与畸形明显增加。许多孩子的母亲报告有症状符合病毒感染在怀孕。但它已经很难证明病毒与出生缺陷之间的联系因为齐卡病毒血液测试是唯一准确的大约一个星期后感染。
Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence has accumulated. Researchers have identified the virus in amniotic fluid of pregnant women whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly and also in the brain tissue of a fetus diagnosed with the disorder. But because researchers had conducted scant research on the virus before this year, they had little data to suggest how the virus could cause such damage.
然而,随着证据积累。研究人员已经确定了病毒的孕妇其胎儿被诊断为畸形也与疾病的诊断胎儿脑组织的羊水。但是,因为研究人员在这一年没有对病毒进行过多的研究,他们很少有资料显示病毒会导致这种损害。
To gauge the virus’s possible effects on the developing brain, researchers at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and Florida State University in Tallahassee used induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to grow, in lab dishes, immature brain cells called human cortical neural progenitor cells. (iPS cells are adult cells that have been reprogrammed into stem cells that can grow into most of the tissues in the body.) They then exposed the neural progenitor cells to a lab strain of Zika virus.
为了了解病毒对发育脑的可能影响,在约翰霍普金斯大学在巴尔的摩,马里兰和塔拉哈西佛罗里达州立大学的研究人员在实验室中使用诱导多能干细胞(iPS)细胞生长未成熟的细胞,称为人的大脑皮质神经祖细胞。(iPS细胞是成体细胞重编程为干细胞已经可以生长到大部分的组织。)然后他们神经祖细胞在存在齐卡病毒菌株的环境中培养。
The virus readily infected the neural stem cells, neuroscientists Hongjun Song and Guo-li Ming, virologist Hengli Tang, and their colleagues report today in Cell Stem Cell. Three days after the virus was applied, 85% of the cells in the culture dishes were infected. In contrast, when the virus was applied to cultures of fetal kidney cells, embryonic stem cells, and undifferentiated iPS cells, it infected fewer than 10% of the cells by day 3. Immature neurons derived from the neural progenitor cells were also less susceptible to the virus; 3 days after receiving a dose of the virus, fewer than 20% of those cells were infected.
该病毒容易感染神经干细胞,神经科学家Hongjun Song和郭李明,病毒学家亨利唐及其同事报告今天在干细胞。三天后,病毒被应用,85%的细胞在培养皿中被感染。相反,当病毒应用于胎肾细胞培养、胚胎干细胞和未分化的iPS细胞,它感染了少于3天10%的细胞。未成熟的神经前体细胞的神经元也不太容易受到病毒的感染,3天后,接受剂量的病毒,不到20%的这些细胞被感染。
The researchers noticed that the infected progenitor cells were not killed right away. Instead, the virus “hijacked the cells,” using the cellular machinery to replicate themselves, Song says. That helped the virus to spread quickly through the cell population, he says.  His team also reports that infected cells grew more slowly and had interrupted cell division cycles, which could also contribute to microcephaly.
研究人员注意到,受感染的前体细胞没有被杀死。相反,病毒“劫持了细胞,”使用细胞机械复制自己,宋说。他说,这有助于病毒迅速通过细胞群扩散。他的团队还报告说,感染的细胞生长缓慢,细胞分裂周期已中断,这也有助于小头畸形。
原文链接:http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2 ... eloping-brain-cells

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